The Exton|OS ISO is a ISO-hybrid, which means that it can very easily be transferred (copied) to a USB pen drive.
A) Installation in Linux without persistence
Exton|OS can be installed/transferred to a USB stick directly from the ISO file. It might be good to use this method if your computer lacks a CD/DVD drive, or if you just prefer to run Linux systems from a USB stick.This is the way to perform the installation:
1. Boot up a Linux system (Ubuntu or…) and download the ISO file exton-os-64bit-budgie-refracta-calamares-1070mb-180301.iso
2. Open up a terminal and cd to the folder where the ISO file is
3. Insert a USB stick and make sure which name it was given (/dev/sdb1 or /dev/sdc1 or …)
4. First run the command isohybrid exton-os-64bit-budgie-refracta-calamares-1070mb-180301.iso
5. Then run the installation command cp exton-os-64bit-budgie-refracta-calamares-1070mb-180301.iso /dev/sdb
6. Then run the command sync
7. Alternative installation command: dd if=exton-os-64bit-budgie-refracta-calamares-1070mb-180301.iso of=/dev/sdb bs=4M
B) Installation in Windows without persistence
You can as an alternative to the above mentioned commands use Rufus in Windows. Persistence can’t be enabled though.
C) Persistent installation using Calamares Installer
You can install Exton|OS to a USB stick in the same way as a hard drive installation. It’s a bit tricky though, since you have to chroot into the system on the USB stick to perform the Grub installation. I.e. to make the stick bootable. Do it like this.
1. Start up Calamares Installer and perform the installation. Choose manual partition and choose to install Exton|OS to /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdc1 or…. Check it carefully so you don’t lose data accidentally. Choose to install Grub to /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc or… instead of /dev/sda (MBR). When Calamares is running it will look like this.
2. When the installation is (almost) ready you will get a message saying that the installation has failed – screenshot. Just close down Calamares.
3. Now you’ll have to chroot into the system on the USB stick to be able to install Grub. Run the following commands. One at the time. (/dev/sdc1 is the USB stick in this example).
mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/sdc1
mv /mnt/sdc1/etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sdc1/etc/resolv-ORG.conf
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sdc1/etc
mount -t proc proc /mnt/sdc1/proc
mount -o bind /sys /mnt/sdc1/sys
mount –bind /dev /mnt/sdc1/dev
mount -o bind /dev/pts /mnt/sdc1/dev/pts
chroot /mnt/sdc1 /bin/bash
apt install grub-pc – screenshot
grub-install /dev/sdc – screenshot
update-grub – screenshot
mv /mnt/sdc1/etc/resolv-ORG.conf /mnt/sdc1/etc/resolv.conf – screenshot
4. Reboot your computer and choose to boot from the USB stick. Press F12 or… during reboot.
NOTE: This way to install Exton|OS to a USB stick works on all NON UEFI-enabled computers. Don’t use this method on UEFI-enabled computers. Your “normal” Grub installation will be destroyed.
Error messages when running from USB
Common error message when trying to run Exton|OS from an USB stick: (initramfs) mount: mounting /dev/loop0 on //filesystem.squashfs failed: Invalid argument. Can not mount /dev/loop0 (/cdrom/casper/filesystem.squashfs) on //filesystem.squashfs
Solution: Try with another USB stick (another brand). NOTE: It appears that not all USB sticks are suitable for topical purposes. I.e. they can not be made bootable. I myself have experience of brands Kingston DataTraveler, SanDisk Ultra USB 3.0, SanDisk Extreme USB 3.0 and Sony Micro Vault. The first three works (for me). You shall not use USB sticks of older model. They may work, but mostly bad. If you – after the installation of Exton|OS to the USB stick – get different error messages (see above) when you try to run the system from the stick it is often because the stick is not “good enough”.